With the popularity of peptides becoming more aware mainstream public market so are the different ways to be administered.
The most effect for most peptides is by injection either subcutaneously or intra muscularly. The type of needle and syringe needed should not make even the most needle phobic individual squeamishas the correct type is what is known as microfine, ideally with an 8mm microfine pin.
The administered either subcutaneously or intra muscularly the following information explains both processes
Subcutaneous injection is administered onto fatty tissues under the skin. The fatty layer is situated immediately beneath the skin and contains few blood vessels. The subcutaneous shot is shallower compared to injections on muscle tissues. Subcutaneous injection is suitable for administering medications that are slowly absorbed in the bloodstream. Examples of such medication is insulin, some fertility drugs, and blood thinners. Subcutaneous injection is safe and requires little force as compared to intramuscular injections. The few blood vessels on this fat layer make itideal for drugs that need to be absorbed and used slowly in the body. Mostly, the drugs that are to be administered daily are designed suitably for subcutaneous injection since it is simple.
How to perform subcutaneous injection:
• Choose areas such as thigh, top of buttocks or the most common around the abdomen. These areas are known to be fatty. When you are doing the injections severally, it’s important to rotate the injection areas to for complete healing. Don’t inject one area frequently.
• Ensure your hands are clean, and clean the injection area too. Use alcohol pad to clean. After clean, allow the area to dry.
• Use the needle to draw medicine into the syringe. Usually, you turn the vial upside down and pull the plunger to suck the drug. Ensure the syringe is free of bubbles by tapping it.
• Pinch a 2-inch thick skin of the fatty area within your thumb and a finger.
• Slide the needle at 90 degrees into the skin.
• Push the plunger steadily.
• Remove and safely dispose of the needle.
Intramuscular injections are delivered into the muscle:
Intramuscular injection is an injection method used to deposit compounds into the muscle tissue. The method is suitable for administering medication that need to be absorbed quickly in the blood. The muscle tissue has less pain sensing nerves making it less painful. Examples of drugs administered using intramuscular injection include antibiotics, vaccinations and hormones.
Body areas on which IM can be done include shoulder muscle, thigh muscles, muscles on the hip.
Steps of intramuscular injection:
• Choose the site that is most suitable for the injection depending on your comfort and stability.
• Ensure you have done the injection dosage correctly.
• Prepare the medication following the recommended procedures and medical instructions.
• When ready, use alcohol pads to clean the injection area and allow it to dry.
• Inject the selected and cleaned area.
• After the injection removes the needle and disposes of it safely.
Other ways of peptide administration
Nasal drug delivery system is a promising alternative route of administration for the several systemically acting drugs with poor bio availability and it has advantages in terms of improved patient acceptability and an alternative option to injecting but still providing a direct pathway into the bloodstream
Sublingual (abbreviated SL), from the Latin for "under the tongue", refers to the pharmacological route of administration by which substances diffuse into the blood through tissues under the tongue. Many compounds and drugs are absorbed through sublingual administration, including cardiovascular drugs, steroids, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, opioid analgesics, THC, CBD, some proteins and increasingly vitamins and minerals.
How SL works
When a chemical comes in contact with the mucous membrane beneath the tongue, it is absorbed. Because the connective tissue beneath the epithelium contains a profusion of capillaries, the substance then diffuses into them and enters the venous circulation. In contrast, substances absorbed in the intestines are subject to first-pass metabolism in the liver before entering the general circulation.
Sublingual administration has certain advantages over oral administration. Being more direct, it is often faster onset of action, and it ensures that the substance will risk degradation only by salivary enzymes before entering the bloodstream, where as orally administered drugs must survive passage through the hostile environment of the gastrointestinal tract, which risks degrading them by up to 25%, by either stomach acid or bile, or by enzymes such as monoamine oxidase (MAO). Furthermore, after absorption from the gastrointestinal tract, such drugs must pass to the liver, where they may be extensively altered; this is known as the first pass effect of drug metabolism. Due to the digestive activity of the stomach and intestines, the oral route is unsuitable for certain substances.
The oral administration of therapeutic peptides and proteins is favoured from a patient and commercial point of view for a market that do not favour injectable or nasal pathway. Even though oral administration of peptides are effective when used correctly they are the least effective pathway due to having to pass through the digestive tract.